Review of the National Center for Digitization

Publisher: Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade

ISSN: 1820-0109

Issue: 39

Year: 2021

NCD Review


Maja Nikolova

Keywords: education, migration, development, patriarchal environment

During its history, Serbian people had been forced on numerous migrations that have enabled his future survival. One of the first migration was a great migration of Serbs during which the significant part of the Serbian people, who lived under Ottoman rule, moved to the north, to thr southern parts of the Habsburg monarchy. Then followed other migrations that influenced Serbian culture, education, language, and overall life.
One of the most important was the one in World War I when the population and the army passed and on Corfu, and the youngest went to school in France. This migration had a large significant Serbian people. Post-war French influence was present in social life - in politics, science, culture, and education. Knowledge of the French language and the elegance of French hats were not the only features of French students' lives. Their successes in all fields of natural and social sciences testify that the education acquired in French lyceums and colleges, or graduation courses, had a far-reaching impact on their professional life and that they, as such, became symbols of a time and historical events. Thus, Serbia's social history cannot be viewed in a complex way without the influence that French students had on ordinary people's everyday lives or socio-political events in interwar Serbia.
The specificity of migration is, and its impact on the Serbian nation's socio-political and cultural events was education, mostly male children, from Old Serbia's territory in the late 19th and early 20th century. At to space in which was still under Ottoman rule, live Serbs who were under severe historical conditions tried to develop a primary school network. The process of upbringing and education depended on the current political circumstances and the available resources in Serbia and the area of Old Serbia. For high school education, they were forced to go to Serbia, mostly to teacher's schools, or to the Serbian high school in Constantinople and Thessaloniki. Upon their return to their homeland, in addition to the knowledge that was primary, they brought with them new European manners that were difficult and slow to spread in the patriarchal environment.
In the search for national identity and its maintenance, customs, religion, and language were nurtured, and family moral upbringing enabled the survival of people of the Orthodox faith in those areas. Strict family relations in a patriarchal and backward society conditioned the level of education of young people, especially in terms of female children's education. On their return to the old environment, students educated in Serbia or European Turkey influenced its transformation. These changes were visible in education and everyday life - women began to leave the house, hang out, and the cleavage on the blouse became deeper. The changes were also visible in the cultivation of the land, the construction of houses, and the spirit's strength, which slowly began to sink into new trends.
This paper aims to point out the positive impact of population migration in the field of education. For backward patriarchal environment could not develop without external influence, people trained in more developed areas that have acted on them as the immigrant is at a certain time.

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Vesna Andrijašević and Ivana Hrenko and Ivan Spasojević

Keywords: Povelja, journal, digitization, digital humanities, the Public Library "Stefan Prvovenčani" Kraljevo

The topic of this paper is the project fulfillment process of digitization of “Povelja” journal, issued by the Public Library “Stefan Prvovenčani” in Kraljevo. This, according to the public opinion in literature, is one of the most important domestic literature journals, which has constantly been issued since 1971. The project “Digitization of the journal Povelja 1971–2020” was implemented within the projects in the field of the cultural heritage and contemporary artwork digitization. It was supported and co-financed by the Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Serbia. The content of the journal was converted from the paper copies to e-texts. All the issues of the journal were scanned chronologically, starting from the first publication in 1971. The given content, in electronic form, was submitted to the process of digitization, i.e. program processing which enables searching of the journal issues according to the specific references (the name of the author, year, notebook/number). This content is uploaded to the web site of the Public Library “Stefan Prvovencani” in order to be available for the broad readership. All the articles of the journal were analytically processed in the collaborative online bibliographic system and service – COBISS.

13 - 18


Petra Vávrová and Jitka Neoralová and Dana Novotná and Richard Frank Mally

During the pandemic, the activities of the Collection Preservation Division (CPD, hereinafter also the Collection Preservation Division) of the National Library of the Czech Republic (NL CR) and its three departments focused on minimizing the risk of employees, readers, researchers getting infected with COVID-19. The standard task of the Collection Preservation Division staff is to take care of the good physical condition of library collections and to provide methodological assistance in this area for the entire extensive libraries network throughout the Czech Republic. The aim is to prevent damage to library collections and to provide conditions needed for their permanent preservation for future generations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the search for facility disinfection options, the provision of hand sanitizers for employees and the establishment of preventive measures against the spread of the disease inside and between buildings became a priority. An important part of the work of the Collection Preservation Division was specific consulting and planning of individual steps to support the decisionmaking of the crisis staff of the National Library of the Czech Republic.

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Zoran Cvetković and Ada Vlajić and Rifat Kulenović

Keywords: Serbian railways, Banat railway history, railway infrastructure, railway heritage

The development of the railway in Banat includes two periods. The Austro-Hungarian period lasted until the middle of the First World War. The largest part of the current Banat railway network was built at that time. The second period started after the war, when Yugoslavia was founded. At that time, the existing railway network on the territory of Yugoslavia, and now Serbia, was expanded by the construction of several more railways. The change in traffic trends has greatly reduced the share of railways in public transport. That is why, in the last decades, mostly of Banat railways has been closed, and the railway infrastructure and facilities have been abandoned and remained unprotected. In this article, we present part of the results of our project “Technical and architectural heritage on the railways of Vojvodina - Banat". Following the Banat railways, the goal of the project was to identify and document the existing railway heritage that is sometimes more than 120 years old.

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Žarko Mijajlović and Nadežda Pejović

We present periodicals and other editions of the Astronomical society “Ruđer Bošković” from Belgrade, published by the Society since its founding in 1934. All these publications were digitized recently and are deposited in the Virtual Library of the Faculty of mathematics in Belgrade. There are two periodicals, the astronomical journal Saturn which was published in Belgrade in the period 1935 -1940 and Vasiona which have been published since 1953 till today. Other editions of the Society are twenty one books, the first one printed in 1939, while the last one was published in 2020.

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Nadežda Pejović and Viktor Radović

This paper will present the website Digital Legacy of Jovan Simovljević (1928 – 2007), a distinguished professor at the University of Belgrade. Jovan Simovljević belonged to the narrowest circle of prominent Serbian astronomers. He continued the work of the recognizable Belgrade School of Celestial Mechanics, founded at the beginning of the 20th century by the famous Milutin Milanković. This site is developed as part of the Digital legacies of the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade ( This project aims to collect, digitize, and present to the general audience the life and work of the prominent Serbian scientist.

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Dušan Tatić and Radomir Stanković and Marko Jovanović and Jovan Stojanović and Dušan Andrejević and Nikola Arsić

Mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablet PCs, have become widely used modern-day information platforms. In this context, mobile devices can also serve as a convenient means of establishing interaction between historical sites and visitors, to enrich the cultural tourism offer. Providing precise multimedia-based information for a visitor at a historical location can be achieved by an augmented reality (AR) technology-based application on their mobile device. In this paper, we present an application based on AR technology aimed at providing information about historical events that took place on four specific years and which are inscribed on the four sides of the Monument to the Liberators located in the main square of the City of Niš, Serbia. By recognizing the reliefs at the bottom of the monument, each of which corresponds to an important event in the city’s decades-long struggle for liberty, the visitor can be immersed in a historical context through specially prepared multimedia content. The technical aspects of the implementation of the application and the on-site informing of visitors on its availability are also briefly discussed.

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Dejan Ristanović and Voja Antonić and Darko Staničić and Srđan Simić and Jelica Protić

"Computers in Your Home" ("Računari u vašoj kući") is the issue #1 of Computers ("Računari"), the first personal computer magazine in former Yugoslavia. Published in December 1983, "Computers in Your Home" compared the first personal computers available on the market, introduced the readership to the BASIC programing language, but also presented the home computer Galaxy (Galaksija), with the detailed instructions on how to build it. The publication was very successful on the market, it was reprinted several times, selling close to 100,000 copies, and the Galaxy computer was built by more than 9,000 readers. Almost forty years later, the attempt is being made by PC Press publishing company to digitally rebuild this publication, as well as the Galaxy computer itself, using modern technology. The idea is not to just reprint the publication, but to prepare it from scratch, using digital photography and modern-day typesetting, to make the publication which looks just the same in terms of content, but much better in terms of technical quality, thus preserving the unique digital heritage for the future

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Gyula Mester and Jelena Pisarov

Keywords: self-driving car, sensor, data processing, robot taxi, car sharing, public passenger transport, freight transport

This paper will present trends in the development of self-driving cars. Successful digitization of traffic conditions is one of the most important parts in this process. Solutions and successes of many companies that work intensively on self-driving cars and their testing to passenger safety in traffic is described. The paper also provides information on progress in the field of freight transport. Further development of digitization and robotization of passenger and cargo transport is no longer a matter of the future but of the present. This applies to land and water and air traffic at the same time. Within a few years, electric cars will be sold at the same price as traditional ones. Electric cars will become cheaper, because the cost of battery production is falling.

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Gyula Mester and César Bautista

Keywords: Automotive digital perception, self-driving robotic cars, dynamic environments, sensors, algorithms, actuators.

In this paper the automotive digital perception of self-driving robotic cars is considered. Selfdriving robotics vehicles are cars or trucks in which human drivers are never required to take control of the vehicle safely operating. The challenges for this technology are planning and navigation of the vehicle in dynamic environments, ensuring the safety of its passengers and pedestrians, offering high rode efficiency. The development of sensors, algorithms and actuators have made it possible to generate advances in self-driving robotic cars. Impressive progress has been achieved in the last decade, yet recent works on self-driving cars still present limitations in the complexity of the environment and/or the speed of movement.

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Gyula Mester and Jelena Pisarov

Keywords: Academic Ranking of World Universities 2021, Higher Education, Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Belgrade, University of Novi Sad, University of Zagreb, University of Ljubljana, Eotvos Lorand University, University of Szeged, Semmelweis University, indicators.

In this paper the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2021 is considered. The publication of the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Academic Ranking of World Universities 2021, ARWU 2021 is analyzed. Those universities ranked between 1 and 1000. In this paper Shanghai World rank list of the top 20 universities in 2021 and the ranking of the universities of the region, University of Belgrade, University of Novi Sad, University of Zagreb, University of Ljubljana, Eotvos Lorand University, University of Szeged, and Semmelweis University are illustrated. ARWU uses six objective indicators to rank world universities, including the number of alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals, number of highly cited researchers selected by Clarivate Analytics, number of articles published in journals of Nature and Science, number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index - Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, and per capita performance of a university.