Review of the National Center for Digitization

Publisher: Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade

ISSN: 1820-0109

Issue: 43

Year: 2023

NCD Review


Žarko Mijajlović

Keywords: virtual library, electronic editions, history of science

The aim of the article is to review work and history of Virtual library of Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade since its foundation. Several interesting books, collections and documents deposited in the Library are presented, too. Some statistics related to the work of the Library is given.

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Monika Novaković and Teodora Trajković

In this paper, we will present the stages of the archiving and digitization process legacy of archpriest and composer Velimir Spernjak, which is located in the Archive of the Institute of Musicology, SASA. The heterogeneity of this material is reflected in different types of documents that include printed musical pieces, sheet music, transcripts, photographs, personal documents as well as manuscripts. After the first review of the material and insight into the state of documents, the need for priority digitization was established, for the sake of preserving this heritage and its availability to future interested researchers. In preparation for digitalization, three stages are planned. First stage involved sorting and classifying the material, so that the second stage would then include listing with a detailed description of each document, as well as its signing. Digitization was implemented in the third, or last, stage. Although without most modern equipment, the technical conditions of the Institute of Musicology SASA met the needs of realizing digitization. In this regard, it has been successfully brought to an end, so we have the opportunity to illustrate the results of this endeavor on this occasion.

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Maja Nikolova

Keywords: Aromanians, education, Lunjina, tradition, digitization.

The Lunjina Serbian Aromanian Society was founded in Belgrade in 1991, and in the period from 1999 to 2010 it published a bulletin called Lunjina, whose initiator and editor-in-chief was Professor Dr. Pribislav Marinković. The Society's ongoing goal is to preserve the Aromanian identity by nurturing its history, language, culture, and tradition.As the Aromanian people have resided in the Balkan Peninsula for centuries, preserving their unique identity and protecting their artistic and intangible heritage from assimilation is essential.The magazine published titles and photographs depicting Aromanian life in the 19th and 20th centuries. It highlighted their role in developing Serbian culture, their unique approach to education, and their contributions to society and science.The digitization of archival materials on Aromanians in Belgrade and Serbia allows the public, especially younger generations, to learn about their presence in our region. This project brings to light crucial historical facts, safeguarding them from oblivion. Thedigitization project encompasses the magazine itself, the preparation of key terms for easier reading, and uploading to the Rastko platform and other digital media.

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Zoran Cvetković

Keywords: First World War, Second World War, Serbia, terror, war victims, monuments.

The municipality of Crna Trava is situated in Serbia's southeast region. The area extends from the Bulgarian border on the east to Predejane and South Morava River on the west. After the First Balkan War and the liberation from the Turks, the territory of Eastern Serbia, including the area of Crna Trava, was the target of permanent Bulgarian conquest goals. By siding with the aggressors and receiving their support, Bulgaria occupied parts of the Eastern and South-eastern territories of Serbia during the both World Wars. Those years the regular Bulgarian army committed numerous crimes against the civilian population, captured soldiers of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the First World War, as well as Partisans in the Second World War. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of memorials, dedicated to soldiers and victims of wars on the territory of Crna Trava during the 20th century. This paper does not interpret the complex historical events and conflicting interests on the Balkans. The primary focus of the paper is on presenting records from the existing memorials.

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Sonja Vidojević and Vera Prokić and Slobodan Ninković

Keywords: astronomy contests, collections of problems.

The very low, i. e. insufficient, presence of astronomy in secondary schools is evident. In order to improve the knowledge level of secondary school pupils and also to enable them to be prepared for contests inside Serbia and international ones as well as possible, the National Astronomical Olympiad Committee (NAOC) has been organising preparations as an astronomy extra-teaching. Since the proper literature, especially collections of problems, in Serbian do not exist, an effort has been done to fill these gaps, at least, partially. For that purpose the NAOC members have translated from Russian and English the most important collections and textbooks to make an easier unattended work of the pupils. An overview of the translated literature with accompanying commentary and content is given.

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Nedeljko Todorović

Keywords: aircraft tracks, meteorological conditions, cloud atlas.

Meteorological conditions deviate from the average climatological conditions, more or less. Condition generally are not in the focus of citizen’s interest until some extreme event occurs. Then the print and digital media are full of reports about the consequences of the storm. Citizens of all professions become active participants and express their observations and opinions with their comments. On the one hand, this is good, but on the other, the comments often confuse public opinion, and in some cases even disturb. The reason is that most analysts and commentators do not have proper professional education and therefore do not understand meteorological processes sufficiently. As a consequence, the comments make assumptions, even claims, that episodes of extreme meteorological phenomena are the result of considerable, deliberate human action (conspiracy). Many comments refer to contrails, which are claimed to be chemtrails as part of a secret dusting program. The claim is based on the presentation of images, films and opinions without sufficient evidence. These specific "records in the sky" are indeed the result of human action, and they were created by known chemical and meteorological processes. They have been known since before the Second World War. In the Cloud Atlas they are classified as Cirrus homogenitus and Cirrus homomutatus. By burning aircraft fuel (hydrocarbons), hydrogen and carbon are produced, and their chemical reaction with oxygen produces carbon dioxide and a molecule of water vapor. The water vapor molecule further binds to the nucleus, which consists mainly of solid particles of jet fuel combustion. Due to the very low temperature at the height of the plane's flight, the microscopic droplet almost immediately changes to a solid state (crystal) and becomes visible. The retention and movement of aircraft trails (clouds) depends on a number of thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. High pressure, low humidity and downward air flow cause rapid disappearance, and low pressure, high humidity and upward flow cause long-term retention of traces. High wind speed carries the tracks in the direction of the wind. In addition to the condensation trails of the aircraft, citizens are also suspicious of "strange-looking clouds", and those rare cloud forms have also long been observed, classified and recorded in the Cloud Atlas.

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Irina Krayneva and Merik Meriste and Killu Sanborn

Our paper is dedicated to an Estonian scientist in Computer Science and Engineering, Enn Tyugu (1935–2020). The narration combines two approaches: social (national) and professional. The social context of Tyugu's biography included the World War II, deportation, Cold War, loss and restoration independence of Estonia. Adaptation to these events formed the so-called “soviet subjectivity” as the external loyalty of the Soviet citizen to the politics and ideology of the state, a cover for their “personal core” and private life. External loyalty, ability and perseverance allowed E. Tyugu to acquire a very high level of professional competence. He participated in programmer projects in the interests of the national economy; his contacts with colleagues from the leading scientific centers of the USSR helped to maintain the theoretical level of research in several areas of programming theory, to enter the academic community as one of the pioneers of informatics in Estonia.

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Aleksandra Fostikov

Keywords: Bing, ChatGPT 3.5 (Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer), communication, civilization Artificial Intelligence (AI), Digital Humanities (DH), Perplexity, “sentient”, society.

Recent breakthrough in the development of the AI (Artificial Intelligence) as well as open access to some of its models created an opportunity to test them. Therefore practical tests of the following models in this moment available to us were performed: ChatGPT 3.5, Perplexity and Bing. Although all three are based on the GPT family development with which the OpenAI (an AI research and deployment company) broke into the market, they are fundamentally different in their capabilities according to the parameters set. In the same time, all three are available in the form of the simple chatbot interface that is needed for human-AI dialogue in the natural language. Exactly that possibility enabled us to carry out the tests that we conceived. The test trials that we executed were based on two types of communications. Firstly, we tested human – AI communication with individual models through the “human dialogue”. In these cases, the emphasis was placed on various issues related to everyday life, but those communications also include the playing with AI, in order to examine how they perceive our natural reality and language. Those models were drawn into different conversations about either itself or people. Then, attention was paid to the communication between AIs themselves. That conversation was conducted through an intermediary, that is, in this case, the author of this paper. In those cases, the author used the copy paste method to bridge their inability to communicate with each other, except in guided experiments. The communications between AIs unveiled that some questions have special interest to themselves. In addition, it should be noted that the communication between natural and artificial intelligence, that is, human-AI, differs from that between two AIs. It is not only obvious in the very essence of asking questions and answers, which, as in the first example, can be based on natural social norms or biases, but also on the fact that their mutual communication is faster and more effective in certain cases where certain cooperation is needed in solving a certain problem. Also of particular interest is their mutual relationship in the consideration of data. In addition, the most differences could be seen in the set of questions for which they are interested. Moreover, there are some philosophical communication about AI itself and the relationship of the AI and humanity. Except presentations of above-mentioned tests, this paper also stressed out some conclusions based on derived data. At the end, the supplementary resources are added that contains raw data given in the form questions - answers.

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Saša Moderc and Ranka Stanković and Aleksandra Tomašević and Mihailo Škorić

Keywords: Aligned corpus, parallel corpus, Serbian, Italian, literature.

This article presents the construction and relevance of an Italian-Serbian sentence-aligned parallel corpus, delving into the aligned sentences in order to facilitate effective translation between the two languages. The parallel corpus serves as a valuable resource for language experts, researchers, and language enthusiasts, fostering a deeper understanding of linguistic nuances and cultural expressions. By bridging the gap between Serbian and Italian, this corpus opens new avenues for cross-cultural communication and collaboration, and ultimately contributes to the improvement of language-related applications and studies. In this paper we present the methodology of corpus building, statistics on corpus content, availability, sample queries and plans for future research.

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Gyula Mester

Keywords: Academic Ranking of World Universities, ARWU 2023, six objective indicators and weights for ARWU.

In this paper the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023 is considered. The publication of the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023, ARWU 2023 is analyzed. In total, more than 2500 universities are ranked, and every August 15th the best 1000 are published. In this paper Shanghai World rank list of the top 10 universities in 2023 and the ranking of the universities of the region, are illustrated. ARWU uses six objective indicators and weights to rank world universities, including the number of alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals, number of highly cited researchers selected by Clarivate Analytics, number of articles published in journals of Nature and Science, number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index - Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, and per capita performance of a university.

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